Pelvic floor dysfunction refers to a wide range of issues that occur when muscles of the pelvic floor are weak, tight, or there is an impairment of the sacroiliac joint, lower back, coccyx, or hip joints. Tissues surrounding the pelvic organs may have increased or decreased sensitivity or irritation resulting in pelvic pain. Many times, the underlying cause of pelvic pain is difficult to determine.
Pelvic floor dysfunction may include any of a group of clinical conditions that includes urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, sensory and emptying abnormalities of the lower urinary tract, defecatory dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, and several chronic pain syndromes, including vulvodynia. The three most common and definable conditions encountered clinically are urinary incontinence, anal incontinence, and pelvic organ prolapse.
The major known causes include obesity, menopause, pregnancy, and childbirth. Some women may be more likely to develop pelvic floor dysfunction because of an inherited deficiency in their collagen type. Some women may have congenitally weak connective tissue and fascia and are therefore at risk of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse.