Mrs Sarah Hussain has been a Gynecologist for 32 years and was appointed Consultant Gynaecologist and Obstetrician at the Whipps Cross University Hospital Trust (E. London) in 1995.
Just as there are different major blood groups, such as type A and type B, there also is an Rh factor. The Rh factor is a protein that can be present on the surface of red blood cells. Most people have the Rh factor—they are Rh positive. Others do not have the Rh factor—they are Rh negative.
The Rh factor is inherited—passed down through parents’ genes to their children. If the mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, the fetus can inherit the Rh gene from the father and could be either Rh positive or Rh negative. If the mother and father are both Rh negative, the baby also will be Rh negative.
The Rh factor can cause problems if you are Rh negative and your fetus is Rh positive. This is called Rh incompatibility. These problems usually do not occur in a first pregnancy, but they can occur in a later pregnancy. When an Rh-negative mother’s blood comes into contact with blood from her Rh-positive fetus, it causes the Rh-negative mother to make antibodies against the Rh factor. These antibodies attack the Rh factor as if it were a harmful substance. A person with Rh-negative blood who makes Rh antibodies is called “Rh sensitized.”
Problems during pregnancy can occur when Rh antibodies from an Rh-sensitized woman cross the placenta and attack the blood of an Rh-positive fetus. The Rh antibodies destroy some of the fetal red blood cells. This causes hemolytic anemia, where red blood cells are destroyed faster than the body can replace them.
Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body. Without enough red blood cells, the fetus will not get enough oxygen. Hemolytic anemia can lead to serious illness. Severe hemolytic anemia may even be fatal to the fetus.
Sterilization is a permanent method of birth control. Sterilization procedures for women are called tubal occlusion. The procedure for men is called vasectomy.
Emergency contraception is the use of certain methods to prevent pregnancy after a woman has had sex without birth control, if her current method fails
The side effects of emergency contraception pills
Nausea and vomiting may occur after taking the progestin-only and combination pills. Your next menstrual period may not occur at the expected time. You may have bleeding or spotting in the week or month after the treatment. Other possible side effects include the following:
These side effects usually go away within a few days.
Possible ulipristal side effects include headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. Your menstrual period may occur earlier or later than expected. Spotting may occur.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the type of tissue that forms the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) is found outside the uterus. It occurs in about one in ten women of reproductive age. It is most often diagnosed in women in their 30s and 40s. Most often it occur in the following places:
Almost 40% of women with infertility have endometriosis. Inflammation from endometriosis may damage the sperm or egg or interfere with their movement through the fallopian tubes and uterus. In severe cases of endometriosis, the fallopian tubes may be blocked by adhesions or scar tissue.
Symptoms of endometriosis
The most common symptom of endometriosis is chronic (long-term) pelvic pain, especially just before and during the menstrual period. Pain also may occur during sex. If endometriosis is present on the bowel, pain during bowel movements can occur. If it affects the bladder, pain may be felt during urination. Heavy menstrual bleeding is another symptom of endometriosis. Many women with endometriosis have no symptoms.
Common PCOS signs and symptoms include the following:
Although the cause of PCOS is not known, it appears that PCOS may be related to many different factors working together. These factors include insulin resistance, increased levels of androgens, and an irregular menstrual cycle.
Leakage of urine is called urinary incontinence. Some women leak small amounts of urine. At other times, leakage of urine is frequent or severe.
Different types of urinary incontinence
Symptoms of urinary incontinence
Causes of urinary incontinence
Urinary incontience can have short-term causes and long-term causes.
Short-term causes are easier to treat and include the following:
Long-term causes include the following:
Hysteroscopic sterilization is a type of tubal sterilization procedure that uses the body’s natural openings to place small implants into the fallopian tubes. These implants cause tissue growth that blocks the tubes. No surgical incision is needed.
Hysteroscopic sterilization uses your body’s natural openings and does not require incisions in your skin. It can be done with local anesthesia. For these reasons, recovery from hysteroscopic sterilization usually is quicker than from other types of sterilization.
Hysteroscopic sterilization has the following risks:
Nausea and vomiting that happen during pregnancy, especially during the first part of pregnancy, often are called “morning sickness.” Despite its name, morning sickness can occur at any time of the day.
If you experience morning sickness, there are several things you can do that might help you feel better. You may need to try more than one of these remedies:
Gestational diabetes is diabetes mellitus that develops in women for the first time during pregnancy. Some women found to have gestational diabetes actually may have had mild diabetes before pregnancy that was not diagnosed.