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Zika Pregnancy

What is Zika Virus & CDC recommendations ?

The Zika virus, a mosquito-borne pathogen is an emerging disease spread by the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Zika infections in pregnancy are believed to increase the risk of a potentially devastating birth defect. Babies born with the condition are known as microcephaly who will have smaller-than-normal heads and may have under-developed brains.

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Here are the new CDC recommendations for pregnant travelers to keep you and your baby safe:

  1. First and foremost, if you’re pregnant and considering travel to an area where people are getting the Zika virus, which you can track on the CDC’s website (current notices are in effect for Puerto Rico, Mexico, and certain countries in Central and South America), the CDC says you should postpone your plans.
  2. If Pregnant women decide to go to one of these areas or are traveling there now, protect yourself from mosquitoes in the daytime by staying in screened or air-conditioned areas, wearing clothing that covers your arms and legs, and using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, as well as insect repellents.
  3. Be sure to talk to your healthcare provider about your recent travels, and ask about Zika risks.
  4. If you’ve traveled to one of the Zika outbreak areas, be on the lookout for symptoms of the Zika virus during your trip and for two weeks after you return home. These include fever, rash, muscle aches, and conjunctivitis (red, itchy eyes). If you have any of these symptoms, see your doctor.
  5. If an ultrasound shows signs of microcephaly in your growing fetus and you’ve recently traveled to one of the affected areas, you’ll need lab tests for the Zika virus. (If you haven’t been to areas where Zika is endemic, you don’t need the tests.) The RT-PCR test looks for Zika virus DNA, and another test detects antibodies that your body makes in response to an infection. Your doctor can test a blood sample and, if you’re 14 or more weeks into your pregnancy, your amniotic fluid in order to test the baby.
  6. The CDC and state health departments will be doing all Zika lab tests, and your doctor will work with these agencies to get the results. There is no commercial in-office Zika test available yet.
  7. If the lab tests show that you have, or have had, a Zika virus infection, you’ll need to consider ultrasounds every three to four weeks to monitor your baby’s growth, as well as a referral to a specialist in infectious diseases and maternal-fetal medicine
There’s no specific treatment or cure for Zika, but Gynacology specialist such as Sarah Hussain may recommend supportive care for your baby health.
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Do you Know Difference between Perimenopause and Menopause?

The primary factor distinguishing perimenopause from menopause is menstruation. Women in perimenopause are still producing estrogen and having periods, whereas, women who have entered menopause have not menstruated for at least 12 months.

Perimenopause is the transition from reproductive adulthood to menopause (1 year after the last menstruation). It may begin as early as age 35 and end as late as 59. It swings in hormone levels are what spark abnormal bleeding. It is also known as menopause transition or climacteric .

How do you know if you are in peri-menopause?

The common symptoms are:

  1. Menstrual irregularities: Experiencing changes in the intervals between periods or skip some periods altogether. The flow may be scanty or profuse. Ovulation may become more erratic as well. Women may be vulnerable to anemia if periods are heavy.
  2. Hot flashes and night sweats: Between 75 and 85 percent of women experience hot flashes during perimenopause. The intensity, frequency, and duration may vary.
  3. Sleep problems: Often hot flashes are to blame for the sleep disturbances or fatigue that can be linked to peri-menopause.
  4. Mood changes: Fluctuating hormones can cause mood swings, depression, irritability, difficulty handling stress or anxiety.
  5. Vaginal problems: As estrogen diminishes, vaginal tissues may lose lubrication and elasticity, making intercourse painful or uncomfortable.
  6. Bladder problems: Lower estrogen levels may leave more vulnerable to urinary tract infections or loss of tissue tone, which may also      contribute to incontinence.
  7. Decreasing fertility: Because ovulation becomes less regular, the ability to conceive may decrease. As long as women having periods, though, pregnancy remains possible
  8. Decreased libido: Sexual desire and arousal may gradually decline; however, stresses in life can also play a role, so it is essential to reduce stress. A supportive and loving partner certainly lessens the effects of hormones.
  9. Body and skin changes: Muscle mass may decrease and body fat may increase as estrogen levels fall. Abdominal fat may increase. A regular exercise program can counter these effects. Lower levels of estrogen may affect the collagen in skin, making it thinner and less elastic.
  10. Loss of bone mass: As estrogen levels decline, Women may lose bone faster than it has been replaced, increasing risk of osteoporosis. Weight bearing exercise and a diet rich in usable calcium and other minerals as well as vitamin D can help keep bones strong.
  11. Changing cholesterol levels: Declining estrogen may result in increased LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, and an increased risk of heart disease. Eating a diet high in fruits, vegetables, beans, and grains can help keep cholesterol levels low.
  12. Sore breasts: some women experience painful breasts just prior to and during their periods while others have sore breasts most of the time. Some women may be vulnerable to fibrocystic breasts.
  13. Migraines: severe, one-sided headaches that often include sharp pain through one eye, seeing auras, blurred vision, nausea, and vomiting.

 

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Perimenopause is common in every woman, then when to consult doctor?

  • Much heavier than normal periods, or periods accompanied by blood clots
  • Periods lasting several days longer than usual
  • Spotting between periods
  • Spotting after sex
  • Periods occurring much closer together (by several days or weeks)

Improving your lifestyle, targeting treatments and even turning to medication as needed can reduce symptoms dramatically

  • Eat less fat, more calcium
  • Exercise 30 minutes a day
  • Breathe in for 5 seconds, then out for 5
  • Ease hot flashes such as Alcohol, Smoking
  • Better Sleep
  • Balance your omegas

 Some women seek medical attention for their perimenopausal symptoms. If you are  experiencing such  symptoms that interfere with your life or well-being, such as hot flashes, mood swings or changes in sexual function that bothers you, then book an appointment with Specialist Dr. Sarah Hussain to determine your best course of  treatment. 

 

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How Menstrual Cycle Affects Women Behaviour?

During premenstrual syndrome (PMS), hormones begin to fluctuate in the women and alter the levels of chemicals that keep them balanced and alert.  But what exactly happens to women during period?

Typically, women go through monthly bleeding as the body sheds the lining of the uterus while menstrual blood flows from it through the small opening in the cervix and through the vagina. Most menstrual periods last from three to five days, with the average menstrual cycle lasting 28 days long

Estrogen and progesterone do a very complicated dance throughout menustrual cycle. The levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone — the three major hormones that control the menstrual cycle. They

Estrogen levels are closely linked with women’s emotional 

  • As estrogen plunges, it depletes Women mood-boosting chemicals, leading to irritability and negativity
  • The rise in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle deters women from impulsive decision-making.
  • Increase in Estrogen levels can  affect Women mood, energy, memory, romantic life,  chattiness, extroversion, shopping habits, food cravings and virtually every other part.

 

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How to feel best during periods: 

During periods, it is always good to optimize energy and relax mood swings by following some helpful tips below

  • Eat Right Food at Right time such as Vegetarian Diet
  • Drinking More water
  • Doing Simple exercises

Do you notice a change in your moods from week to week? Are you suffering from heavy menstrual bleeding? Then Immediately Contact Sarah Hussain and talk to her? She will analyse your condition and guide you with better solution!

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Do you know the Connection between Endometriosis and Fertility?

According to medical statistics Endometriosis is the underlying cause in about 25%-35% of fertility problems in woman. Many women with endometriosis have pelvic or abdominal pain, particularly with their menstrual bleeding or with sex.

There are many different reasons why endometriosis and Infertility are linked together.

  • Prostaglandins – These are hormones which play and important role in the fertilization and implantation of the embryo. An over production of prostaglandins results in infertility.
  • Endometriosis may block your fallopian tubes that are almost microscopic in size. Any blockage in your fallopian tubes will make fertilization difficult and lead to infertility.
  • Developing thickened adhesions will keep sperm from swimming upwards along the fallopian tube that will make it difficult to become pregnant.
  • Adhesions may affect and change the normal position of the ovaries and the tubes in the pelvis, causing issues related to fertility.
  • The egg may find it difficult to find its way into the tubes when the disorder coats the ovary.
  • Cysts formed on the ovary due to bleeding of the displaced endometrial tissue will make ovulation difficult.
  • Endometriosis and pregnancy are related because the disorder leads to pelvic inflammation that triggers the release of chemicals that are antagonistic towards sperm. This will make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant.
  • Endometriosis may contribute towards irregular ovulation, which, in turn, will reduce your chances of conceiving.
  • The quality of the egg may also suffer due to endometriosis, so they are less likely to become fertilized and develop normally.

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Endometriosis

 

 The effect of having endometriosis and interference with fertility will result in having different unwanted feelings such as:

  • Worry
  • Confusion
  • Anger
  • Stress
  • Sadness
  • Depression
  • Grief

Recent studies have shown, Women with endometriosis during pregnancy will carry following risk factors:

  • The baby being born early – before 40 weeks
  • Bleeding after the 24th week of pregnancy
  • High blood pressure (pre-eclampsia)
  • Delivery by caesarean section

 Endometriosis is a complex fertility issue that has been seen to have potential multiple causes. Combination of surgical treatment, medical therapy and advanced reproductive techniques like IVF can work wonders for women to get endometriosis cured. Before a patient undergoes treatment for the disease, a study is conducted to evaluate the depth, amount and location of the endometriosis.

Consult infertility specialist  Dr. Sarah Hussain to determine the stage of the condition and to get better and suitable treatment. Her method of consultation and treatment involves following processes: She,

  • Promises to take your symptoms seriously
  • Explains the relationship between your symptoms and endometriosis.
  • Develops a personalised treatment plan for you, which takes into account the extent of disease and the best treatment to achieve a pregnancy.
  • Designs a plan to reduce recurrence and preserve your fertility for the future.
  • Avoids unnecessary surgery before your fertility treatment.
  • Discusses the limitations, risks and benefits of all treatments.
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Do you know how baby is conceived and developed inside the mother’s womb?

Gestation is the period of time between conception and birth when a baby grows and develops inside the mother’s womb. Gestational age is measured from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual cycle to the current date. It is measured in weeks.

Week 1 – 2

  • The first week of pregnancy starts with the first day of a woman’s menstrual period. She is not yet pregnant.1
  • During the end of the second week, an egg is released from an ovary. This is when you are most likely to conceive if you have unprotected intercourse.

Week 3

  • 3During intercourse, sperm enter the vagina after the man ejaculates. The strongest sperm will travel through the cervix (the opening of the womb, or uterus), and into the Fallopian tubes.
  • A single sperm and the mother’s egg cell meet in the Fallopian tube. When the single sperm enters the egg, conception occurs. The combined sperm and egg is called a zygote.
  • The zygote contains all of the genetic information (DNA) needed to become a baby. Half the DNA comes from the mother’s egg and half from the father’s sperm.
  • The zygote spends the next few days traveling down the Fallopian tube. During this time, it divides to form a ball of cells called a blastocyst.
  • A blastocyst is made up of an inner group of cells with an outer shell.
  • The inner group of cells will become the embryo. The embryo is what will develop into baby.
  • The outer group of cells will become structures, called membranes, which nourish and protect the embryo.

Week 4

  • Once the blastocyst reaches the uterus, it buries itself in the uterine wall.
  • At this point in the mother’s menstrual cycle, the lining of the uterus is thick with blood and ready to support a baby.4
  • The blastocyst sticks tightly to the wall of the uterus and receives nourishment from the mother’s blood.

Week 5

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  • Week 5 is the start of the “embryonic period.” This is when all the baby’s major systems and structures develop.
  • The embryo’s cells multiply and start to take on specific functions. This is called differentiation.
  • Blood cells, kidney cells, and nerve cells all develop.
  • The embryo grows rapidly, and the baby’s external features begin to form.
  • Baby’s brain, spinal cord, and heart begin to develop.
  • Baby’s gastrointestinal tract starts to form.
  • It’s during this time in the first trimester that the baby is most at risk for damage from things that may cause birth defects. This includes certain medications, illegal drug use, heavy alcohol use, infections such as rubella, and other factors.

Weeks 6 – 7

  • Arm and leg buds start to grow.
  • Baby’s brain forms into five different areas. Some cranial nerves are visible.7
  • Eyes and ears begin to form.
  • Tissue grows that will become your baby’s spine and other bones.
  • Baby’s heart continues to grow and now beats at a regular rhythm.
  • Blood pumps through the main vessels.

Week 8-10

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  • Baby’s arms and legs have grown longer.
  • Hands and feet begin to form and look like little paddles.
  • Baby’s brain continues to grow.
  • The lungs start to form
  • Nipples and hair follicles form.
  • Arms grow and elbows develop.
  • Baby’s toes can be seen.
  • All baby’s essential organs have begun to grow.
    • Baby’s eyelids are more developed and begin to close.
    • The outer ears begin to take shape.
    • Baby’s facial features become more distinct.
    • The intestines rotate.
    • At the end of the 10th week of pregnancy, your baby is no longer an embryo. It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth.

Weeks 11 – 14

  • Baby’s eyelids close and will not reopen until about the 28th week
  • Baby’s face is well-formed.
  • Limbs are long and thin.
  • Nails appear on the fingers and toes.14
  • Genitals appear.
  • Baby’s liver is making red blood cells.
  • The head is very large–about half of baby’s size.
  • Tooth buds appear for the baby teeth.

Weeks 15 – 18

18

  • At this stage, baby’s skin is almost transparent.
  • Fine hair called lanugo develops on baby’s head.
  • Muscle tissue and bones keep developing, and bones become harder.
  • Baby begins to move and stretch.
  • The liver and pancreas produce secretions.

 

Weeks 19 – 21

  • Baby can hear.
  • The baby is more active and continues to move and float around.21
  • The mother may feel a fluttering in the lower abdomen. This is called quickening, when mom can feel baby’s first movements.
  • By the end of this time, baby can swallow.

Week 22

  • 22Lanugo hair covers baby’s entire body.
  • Meconium, baby’s first bowel movement, is made in the intestinal tract.
  • Eyebrows and lashes appear.
  • The baby is more active with increased muscle development.
  • The mother can feel the baby moving.
  • Baby’s heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope.
  • Nails grow to the end of baby’s fingers.

Weeks 23 – 25

  • Bone marrow begins to make blood cells.   25
  • The lower airways of the baby’s lungs develop.
  • Baby begins to store fat.

Week 26

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  • Eyebrows and eyelashes are well-formed.
  • All parts of baby’s eyes are developed.
  • Baby may startle in response to loud noises.
  • Footprints and fingerprints are forming.
  • Air sacs form in baby’s lungs, but lungs still aren’t ready to work outside the womb.

Weeks 27 – 30

  • Baby’s brain grows rapidly.
  • The nervous system is developed enough to control some body functions.30
  • Baby’s eyelids can open and close.
  • The respiratory system, while immature, produces surfactant. This substance helps the air sacs fill with air.

Weeks 31 – 34

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  • Baby’s grows quickly and gains a lot of fat.
  • Rhythmic breathing occurs, but baby’s lungs are not fully mature.
  • Baby’s bones are fully developed, but are still soft.
  • Baby’s body begins storing iron, calcium, and phosphorus.

Weeks 35 – 37

  • Baby weighs about 5 1/2 pounds
  • Baby keeps gaining weight, but probably won’t get much longer.
  • The skin isn’t as wrinkled as fat forms under the skin.
  • Baby has definite sleeping patterns.36
  • Baby’s heart and blood vessels are complete.
  • Muscles and bones are fully developed.

Week 38 – 40

40

  • Lanugo is gone except for on the upper arms and shoulders.
  • Fingernails may extend beyond fingertips.
  • Small breast buds are present on both sexes.
  • Head hair is now coarse and thicker.
  • In 40th week of pregnancy, it’s been 38 weeks since conception, and baby could be born any day from now.

 

Get more information, expert advice, and support from Sarah Hussain– Specialist in Gynecology to guide you through your pregnancy 

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