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What is Voiding Dysfunction?

Voiding dysfunction is a condition where there is poor coordination between the bladder muscle and the urethra which results in incomplete relaxation or over activity of the pelvic floor muscles during voiding. In voiding dysfunction condition, the urethra does not relax when the bladder muscle contracts, making it difficult for urine to pass.


  • Urinary hesitancy
  • Slow or weak urine stream
  • Urinary urgency and/or increased frequency
  • Difficulty in emptying the bladder
  • Dribbling urine after urination is complete
  • Blood in the urine
  • Constipation and faecal soiling










Voiding dysfunction may be caused by

  • Nerve dysfunction
  • Non-relaxing pelvic floor muscles or both
  • Endocrine or kidney diseases that affect the urinary tract (e.g. diabetes, chronic kidney disease)
  • Genetic diseases that affect the urinary tract (e.g. Ochoa syndrome, Williams syndrome)
  • Infections or irritations that affect the urinary tract (e.g. urinary tract infections, urethritis, pin-worms, foreign bodies)
  • Stress incontinence

Types of voiding dysfunction?

Daytime wetting (also called diurnal enuresis): Daytime wetting can consist of either small urine leaks that spot or dampen underwear to the complete soaking of undergarments.

Urge syndrome: This is frequent attacks of the need to void (at least seven times a day) countered by hold manoeuvre’s, such as squatting. Urine loss is mild, represented by a dampening of undergarments.

Giggle incontinence: This is the complete emptying of the bladder that occurs with vigorous laughter or giggling.

Bed-wetting (also called nocturnal enuresis): This is when a sleeping child cannot control his/her urination at night. It is not considered as problem or abnormal condition till the child reaches the age of five. But it is an abnormal condition if patients age is more than five.

Have you encountered any of the symptoms listed above? Contact Sarah Hussain for better treatment to solve any type of voiding dysfunction related issues. We are just a Click away! 

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What is IC ?

Interstitial cystitis(IC) or Painful bladder Syndrome or bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a chronic inflammation of the bladder wall.  It is a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder area and disease of the bladder characterized by urinary frequency and urgency, irritable voiding, and pelvic pain. It is a chronic, debilitating syndrome.



What are the Symptoms?

  • Bladder pressure and pain that gets worse as your bladder fills up.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pain in your lower tummy, lower back, pelvis, or urethra (the tube that carries pee from your bladder out of your body)
  • Pain, pressure, or tenderness in the pelvic area
  • Urgency to urinate both day and night

What are the causes?

There is no exact cause but some factors may play key role in Painful bladder syndrome or IC or BPS

  • A defect in the bladder wall that allows substances in the urine to irritate the bladder.
  • The body’s immune system attacks the bladder.
  • A specific type of cell that releases histamine (HISS-tuh-meen) (chemical released during an allergic reaction) and other chemicals, which lead to symptoms of IC/BPS.
  • Something in the urine that damages the bladder.
  • Changes in the nerves that carry bladder sensations, making normal events, such as bladder filling, painful.

If you are experiencing bladder problems you can contact Sarah Hussain who specialise in bladder problems. Call for an appointment with her!!


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What is PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the common hormonal endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. It is a condition in which a woman’s levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. POCS is also known as Stein-Leventhal Syndrome or Polycystic Ovarian Disease.

Women with PCOS usually have the following three conditions:
1. Cysts that develop in varies (polycystic ovaries)
2. High levels of “male hormones” called androgens in Female body
3. Absence of ovulation, leading to irregular menstrual periods or no periods at all

The major cause for PCOS is change in hormone (estrogen and progesterone) levels of the Women that make it harder for the ovaries to release fully-grown (mature) eggs.

Symptoms of PCOS:

Symptoms of PCOS usually start after a woman begins to menstruate. The type and severity of symptoms varies from person to person. Some of them include:

• Irregular or missing menstrual periods
• Decrease in breast size
• Infertility
• Excess or unwanted body or facial hair growth such as on the face, chest, back, stomach, thumbs, or toes.
• Deepening of the voice
• Thinning hair on the scalp
• Pelvic pain
• Enlargement of the clitoris
• Weight problems, often including weight gain around the waist
• Depression or mood swings
• Skin problems, including skin tags, darkening skin and acne
• Breathing problems while sleeping
• Increased blood sugar

Complications of PCOS

The common PCOS symptoms are difficult enough for most women, but some will experience further complications, including:
• Diabetes, elevated insulin levels or insulin resistance
• Uterine cancer
• Heart and blood vessel problems
• Sleep apnea
• Breast cancer
• Infertility and miscarriage

Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS can help control the symptoms and prevent long-term problems.Contact Sarah Hussain for beter treatment and get relief from this condition.

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What is Ovarian Cysts

The ovary is one of a pair of reproductive glands present in women that are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus and “Cyst” is a general term that represents a fluid-filled structure. Ovarian cysts are closed, sac-like structures within an ovary that contain a liquid, or semisolid substance.

Types of Ovarian Cysts:

Follicle cysts– During Menstrual Cycle, the ovaries release an egg each month. The egg grows inside a tiny sac called a follicle. When the egg matures, the follicle breaks open to release the egg Follicle cysts form when the follicle doesn’t break open to release the egg. This causes the follicle to continue growing into a cyst.

Corpus luteum cysts – When the follicle breaks open and releases the egg, the empty follicle sac shrinks into a mass of cells called corpus luteum. It makes hormones to prepare for the next egg for the next menstrual cycle. Corpus luteum cysts form if the sac doesn’t shrink.

 Cystadenomas – Cystadenomas are usually filled with watery fluid. Sometimes they grow larger in Size and forms Cysts.

Endometrioses – This is caused by Endometriosis. Endometriosis means when the lining of the uterus (womb) grows outside of the uterus.










Causes of Ovarian Cysts:

• Endometriosis
• Hormonal problems
• Pregnancy
• Severe pelvic infections

Symptoms of an Ovarian Cyst

• Painful bowel movements
• Nausea and vomiting
• Abdominal bloating or swelling
• Pain in the lower back or thighs
• Breast tenderness
• Pelvic pain before or during the menstrual cycle
• Painful intercourse
• Pain during sex
• Unexplained weight gain
• Needing to urinate more often
• Pain during your period
• Unusual (not normal) vaginal bleeding

Are you suffering from Ovarian Cysts? Then immediately contact Mrs. Sarah Hussain for better treatment to shrink or remove the cyst !!
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What are Fibroids ?

Fibroids are muscular tumors that grow in the wall of the uterus (womb). In medical terminology, fibroids are also called as  “leiomyoma”  or  “myoma”. They range from the size of a seed to the size of a tree and can be confined to the wall of the uterus or grow into the cavity of the womb.

The cause for Fibroids is not specific but Researchers think that the factors include:

  • Hormonal (affected by  estrogen and Progesterone  levels)
  • Genetic (runs in families)

Fibroids can grow on different places in different sizes :

  • Submucosal fibroids. Fibroids that grow into the inner cavity of the uterus which causes heavy menstrual bleeding .
  • Intramural fibroids. Fibroids grow within the muscular uterine wall which causes prolonged, heavy periods, as well as pain and pressure.
  • Subserosal fibroids. Fibroids that project to the outside of the uterus which causes urinary symptoms.


Symptoms of uterine Fibroids 

  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Prolonged menstrual periods — seven days or more of menstrual bleeding
  • Pelvic pressure or pain
  • Frequent urination
  • Difficulty emptying your bladder
  • Constipation
  • Backache or leg pains
  • Abdominal discomfort, abdominal fullness
  • Enlargement of the lower abdomen
  • Pain during sex

Complications of Fibroids

Fibroids can increase pregnancy complications and delivery risks.

  • Anemia due to iron deficiency may result from heavy menstrual bleeding.
  • Large fibroids may reduce fertility, although this is not very common.
  • Hyaline degeneration (asymptomatic).
  • Torsion of pedunculated fibroid.
  • Ureteral obstruction causing hydronephrosis.
  • Infertility
  • Recurrent Miscarriage

Do you have any symptoms of Fibroids , then  discuss with Mrs. Sarah Hussain for better ways to diagnose and treat your problem.


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