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Do you know how baby is conceived and developed inside the mother’s womb?

Gestation is the period of time between conception and birth when a baby grows and develops inside the mother’s womb. Gestational age is measured from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual cycle to the current date. It is measured in weeks.

Week 1 – 2

  • The first week of pregnancy starts with the first day of a woman’s menstrual period. She is not yet pregnant.1
  • During the end of the second week, an egg is released from an ovary. This is when you are most likely to conceive if you have unprotected intercourse.

Week 3

  • 3During intercourse, sperm enter the vagina after the man ejaculates. The strongest sperm will travel through the cervix (the opening of the womb, or uterus), and into the Fallopian tubes.
  • A single sperm and the mother’s egg cell meet in the Fallopian tube. When the single sperm enters the egg, conception occurs. The combined sperm and egg is called a zygote.
  • The zygote contains all of the genetic information (DNA) needed to become a baby. Half the DNA comes from the mother’s egg and half from the father’s sperm.
  • The zygote spends the next few days traveling down the Fallopian tube. During this time, it divides to form a ball of cells called a blastocyst.
  • A blastocyst is made up of an inner group of cells with an outer shell.
  • The inner group of cells will become the embryo. The embryo is what will develop into baby.
  • The outer group of cells will become structures, called membranes, which nourish and protect the embryo.

Week 4

  • Once the blastocyst reaches the uterus, it buries itself in the uterine wall.
  • At this point in the mother’s menstrual cycle, the lining of the uterus is thick with blood and ready to support a baby.4
  • The blastocyst sticks tightly to the wall of the uterus and receives nourishment from the mother’s blood.

Week 5

5

  • Week 5 is the start of the “embryonic period.” This is when all the baby’s major systems and structures develop.
  • The embryo’s cells multiply and start to take on specific functions. This is called differentiation.
  • Blood cells, kidney cells, and nerve cells all develop.
  • The embryo grows rapidly, and the baby’s external features begin to form.
  • Baby’s brain, spinal cord, and heart begin to develop.
  • Baby’s gastrointestinal tract starts to form.
  • It’s during this time in the first trimester that the baby is most at risk for damage from things that may cause birth defects. This includes certain medications, illegal drug use, heavy alcohol use, infections such as rubella, and other factors.

Weeks 6 – 7

  • Arm and leg buds start to grow.
  • Baby’s brain forms into five different areas. Some cranial nerves are visible.7
  • Eyes and ears begin to form.
  • Tissue grows that will become your baby’s spine and other bones.
  • Baby’s heart continues to grow and now beats at a regular rhythm.
  • Blood pumps through the main vessels.

Week 8-10

9

  • Baby’s arms and legs have grown longer.
  • Hands and feet begin to form and look like little paddles.
  • Baby’s brain continues to grow.
  • The lungs start to form
  • Nipples and hair follicles form.
  • Arms grow and elbows develop.
  • Baby’s toes can be seen.
  • All baby’s essential organs have begun to grow.
    • Baby’s eyelids are more developed and begin to close.
    • The outer ears begin to take shape.
    • Baby’s facial features become more distinct.
    • The intestines rotate.
    • At the end of the 10th week of pregnancy, your baby is no longer an embryo. It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth.

Weeks 11 – 14

  • Baby’s eyelids close and will not reopen until about the 28th week
  • Baby’s face is well-formed.
  • Limbs are long and thin.
  • Nails appear on the fingers and toes.14
  • Genitals appear.
  • Baby’s liver is making red blood cells.
  • The head is very large–about half of baby’s size.
  • Tooth buds appear for the baby teeth.

Weeks 15 – 18

18

  • At this stage, baby’s skin is almost transparent.
  • Fine hair called lanugo develops on baby’s head.
  • Muscle tissue and bones keep developing, and bones become harder.
  • Baby begins to move and stretch.
  • The liver and pancreas produce secretions.

 

Weeks 19 – 21

  • Baby can hear.
  • The baby is more active and continues to move and float around.21
  • The mother may feel a fluttering in the lower abdomen. This is called quickening, when mom can feel baby’s first movements.
  • By the end of this time, baby can swallow.

Week 22

  • 22Lanugo hair covers baby’s entire body.
  • Meconium, baby’s first bowel movement, is made in the intestinal tract.
  • Eyebrows and lashes appear.
  • The baby is more active with increased muscle development.
  • The mother can feel the baby moving.
  • Baby’s heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope.
  • Nails grow to the end of baby’s fingers.

Weeks 23 – 25

  • Bone marrow begins to make blood cells.   25
  • The lower airways of the baby’s lungs develop.
  • Baby begins to store fat.

Week 26

26.1

  • Eyebrows and eyelashes are well-formed.
  • All parts of baby’s eyes are developed.
  • Baby may startle in response to loud noises.
  • Footprints and fingerprints are forming.
  • Air sacs form in baby’s lungs, but lungs still aren’t ready to work outside the womb.

Weeks 27 – 30

  • Baby’s brain grows rapidly.
  • The nervous system is developed enough to control some body functions.30
  • Baby’s eyelids can open and close.
  • The respiratory system, while immature, produces surfactant. This substance helps the air sacs fill with air.

Weeks 31 – 34

34

  • Baby’s grows quickly and gains a lot of fat.
  • Rhythmic breathing occurs, but baby’s lungs are not fully mature.
  • Baby’s bones are fully developed, but are still soft.
  • Baby’s body begins storing iron, calcium, and phosphorus.

Weeks 35 – 37

  • Baby weighs about 5 1/2 pounds
  • Baby keeps gaining weight, but probably won’t get much longer.
  • The skin isn’t as wrinkled as fat forms under the skin.
  • Baby has definite sleeping patterns.36
  • Baby’s heart and blood vessels are complete.
  • Muscles and bones are fully developed.

Week 38 – 40

40

  • Lanugo is gone except for on the upper arms and shoulders.
  • Fingernails may extend beyond fingertips.
  • Small breast buds are present on both sexes.
  • Head hair is now coarse and thicker.
  • In 40th week of pregnancy, it’s been 38 weeks since conception, and baby could be born any day from now.

 

Get more information, expert advice, and support from Sarah Hussain– Specialist in Gynecology to guide you through your pregnancy 

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What Diet Should Be Followed During Pregnancy ?

During pregnancy, a woman’s macronutrient (energy) and micronutrient (e.g. vitamins, mineral) requirements increase, and it is even more important that she consumes food which will give her both the energy and the specific micronutrients which are essential for maintaining her and her growing baby’s health.

While nutritional supplements can provide large quantities of particular micronutrients, a healthy balanced diet should form the basis of a woman’s nutritional intake. Good nutrition is most important immediately prior to conception and during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy

Maintaining a healthy diet during pregnancy helps to protect both the pregnant mother and ongoing development of the baby depends on the health of the embryo from which it is formed.

Here is a look at the food groups and some suggested sources for creating a healthy diet during pregnancy.

Fruits and Vegetables: Fruits and vegetables contain many important nutrients for pregnancy especially, Vitamin C and Folic Acid. Pregnant women need at least 70 mg of Vitamin C daily, which is contained in fruits such as oranges, grapefruits and honeydew, and vegetables such as broccoli, tomatoes, and brussel sprouts.

Breads and Grains: The body’s main source of energy for pregnancy comes from the essential carbohydrates found in breads and grains. Whole grain and enriched products provide important nutrients such as iron, B Vitamins, fiber and some protein, even. You can get the required amount of folic acid from fortified bread and cereal.

Calcium: Calcium is essential for building strong teeth and bones, normal blood clotting, and muscle and nerve function. Since your developing baby requires a considerable amount of calcium, your body will take calcium from your bones, if you do not consume enough through your diet (which can lead to future problems, such as osteoporosis). Good sources of calcium include milk, cheese, yogurt, cream soups and puddings. Some calcium is also found in green vegetables, seafood, beans and dried peas. You should consume at least 4 servings of dairy products daily.

Iron: During pregnancy, a woman’s body needs more iron than usual to produce all the blood needed to supply nutrition to the placenta. Good sources of iron are green vegetables such as broccoli and spinach, strawberries, muesli and whole meal bread.

Milk and dairy products: skimmed milk, yogurt/curd, buttermilk (chhaach), cottage cheese (paneer). These foods are high in calcium, protein and Vitamin B-12.

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Iodine: It is critical for the development and functioning of the thyroid gland and regulation of metabolism. The RDA for pregnant women is 200 mcg per day. You can get iodine from fluoridated drinking water, iodized (table) salt, eggs, milk, and brewer’s yeast.

Starchy carbohydrate-rich foods: Starchy carbohydrate-rich foods include potatoes, rice, pasta, and bread.

Fats: The role of DHA and other essential fatty acids in the development of the fetal brain is now clear. These are essential for ideal development of intelligence, learning and vision. Add flax seeds, walnuts, beans and tofu to your diet. Olive oil and soyabean oil are also good sources of essential fatty acids. Non-vegetarians can benefit from fish intake or cod liver oil capsules. Saturated fats such as ghee, butter, cheese and hydrogenated fats should be consumed in limited quantities.

Zinc: The RDA of zinc for pregnant women is 20 mg per day and 25 mg for nursing women. Oysters, beef, and liver are good sources of zinc. It is a good idea to make sure your prenatal vitamin contains enough zinc to prevent problems if you do not eat these foods. Smaller amounts of zinc (4 to 6 mg) are contained in fish, wheat germ, and miso.

 There are a number of benefits for both you and your baby to eating healthy during pregnancy. Here are just a few of them:

Reduces Pregnancy Complications: Women are vulnerable to a number of complications during pregnancy, including high blood pressure and gestational diabetes. Eating well can keep blood pressure, blood sugar levels and weight at healthy levels to reduce the incidence of such complications.

Reduces Incidence of Birth Defects: Exposure to certain chemicals or a deficit in certain nutrients can lead to birth defects in your baby. For example, artificial sweeteners like aspartame have been linked to a higher incidence of birth defects such as neurological impairments and development delays. Also, the lack of key nutrients such as folic acid has been linked to higher rates of birth defects such as spina bifida.

Ensures a Healthy Weight for Your Baby: Babies with a low birth weight suffer more health problems and potentially serious complications than babies born at a healthy weight. A low birth weight can set babies up for a lifetime of health complications or disabilities.

Sets the Stage for Good Health: What you eat while you’re pregnant can influence your baby’s development and what he or she eats later in life. If you eat poorly, not only will your baby develop a taste for foods that are low in nutrition, but he or she will also have a greater risk for developing obesity and serious diseases like diabetes.

Helps Lose Weight Faster: Most women are keen to lose their extra pregnancy weight as quickly as possible. Eating nutritiously throughout your pregnancy not only makes it more likely that you will gain a healthy amount of weight, but also makes it easier for you to shed that weight after pregnancy.

Foods to avoid during pregnancy

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Aspartame
  • Contaminated foods
  • Nitrate-Rich Foods
  • Green-Light Foods
  • Soft Cheeses
  • Cooked Deli Meats

 Consult the best Gynaecologist and Healthcare provider like Dr. Sarah Hussain, to know more in details about which supplement is best for you during pregnancy.

 

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Bleeding in early pregnancy!

If you bleed in early pregnancy it does not always mean that you are having a miscarriage?

 Bleeding during pregnancy is relatively common, but it can be a dangerous sign .In early pregnancy you might get some perfectly harmless light bleeding, called “spotting”. This is when the developing embryo plants itself in the wall of your womb. This often happens around the time that your first period after conception would have been due.

Causes of bleeding in early pregnancy

During the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, vaginal bleeding can be a sign of Miscarriage or Ectopic Pregnancy or Molar Pregnancy .However, many women who bleed at this stage of pregnancy go on to have normal and successful pregnancies

Miscarriage Because miscarriage is most common during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, it tends to be one of the biggest concerns with first trimester bleeding. About half of women who bleed in pregnancy eventually miscarry, but that doesn’t necessarily mean that if you’re bleeding you’ve lost the baby.

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Ectopic Pregnancy In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized embryo implants outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. If the embryo keeps growing, it can cause the fallopian tube to burst, which can be life-threatening to the mother. Although ectopic pregnancy is potentially dangerous, it only occurs in about 2% of pregnancies.

Molar pregnancy (also called gestational trophoblastic disease). This is a very rare condition in which abnormal tissue grows inside the uterus instead of a baby. In rare cases, the tissue is cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body.

Uterine fibroids: Uterine fibroids are masses of compacted muscle and fibrous tissue, which can be found inside or outside the uterine wall. They can be either problematic or unproblematic during pregnancy — it mainly depends on the location of the fibroids and if they grow or not. Experts aren’t sure why, but pregnancy hormones can cause fibroids to shrink or grow. – See more at: http://www.bellybelly.com.au/pregnancy/bleeding-during-pregnancy/

Changes in the cervix: The cells on the cervix often change in pregnancy and make it more likely to bleed, particularly after sex. These cell changes are harmless, and are called cervical ectropion. Vaginal infections can also cause a small amount of vaginal bleeding

Placental abruption: A serious condition in which the placenta starts to come away from the womb wall. Placental abruption usually causes stomach pain, and this may occur even if there is no bleeding.

phototake_photo_of_8_week_fetus_circlePlacenta Praevia :Low-lying placenta (or placenta praevia) is when the placenta is attached in the lower part of the womb, near to or covering the cervix. This can block your baby’s path out of your body. The position of your placenta is recorded at your anomaly scan.

Vasa Praevia : A rare condition where the baby’s blood vessels run through the membranes covering the cervix. Normally, the blood vessels would be protected within the umbilical cord and the placenta. It should be suspected if there is bleeding and the baby’s heart rate changes suddenly after the rupture of the membranes.

A show: The most common sort of bleeding in late pregnancy is the small amount of blood mixed with mucus that is known as a ‘show’. This occurs when the plug of mucus that has sealed the cervix during pregnancy comes away. This is a sign that the cervix is changing and becoming ready for labour to start. It may happen a few days before contractions start or during labour itself.

Contact Dr. Sarah Hussain immediately if you have any amount of vaginal bleeding before 37 weeks or vaginal bleeding accompanied by abdominal pain. She will monitor your case and provide you the best solution.

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INFERTILITY DUE TO DAMAGED TUBES

Infertility, the inability of a couple to conceive and reproduce. It is defined as the failure to conceive after one year of regular intercourse without contraception or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. Infertility can affect either the male or the female and can result from a number of causes.

Fertility depends on the production of a sufficient number of healthy, motile Sperm by the male, delivery of those cells into the Vagina, successful passage of the Sperm through the Uterus and into the fallopian tubes, and penetration of a normal Ovum (egg) by one of the sperm. A successful Pregnancy also requires that the fertilized ovum subsequently become implanted in the lining of the female uterus. A problem at any one of these stages can result in a couple’s infertility.

What are fallopian tubes? How do they help achieve pregnancy?

The female reproductive system includes two fallopian tubes, one on each side of the uterus. These flexible, trumpet-shaped tubes extend to the surface of each ovary. When the ovary releases an egg, finger-like projections at the flared end of the tube catch the egg. It is there, in the tube, that conception occurs if the egg meets sperm and becomes fertilized. Tiny hairs inside the tube’s lining push the resulting embryo (fertilized egg) out of the tube and into the uterus where it implants and grows
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All-About-Blocked-Fallopian-Tubes

There are two types of cells within the fallopian tubes. Ciliated cells are most abundant in the infundibulum and ampullary. Estrogen increases the production of cilia cells in the fallopian tubes. Scattered between the ciliated cells are peg cells which produce tubular fluid. This fluid contains important nutrients for both sperm, oocytes (ova), and zygotes (fertilized ova). The secretions also promote capacitation of the sperm.  Progesterone increases the number of peg cells. Estrogen increases the height and secretory activity of the peg cells. In addition, tubal fluid flows against the action of the cilia, near the fimbriated end. Not only is progesterone and estrogen balance vital to the menstrual cycle overall, but it is vital to the health and proper function of the fallopian tubes as well.

A fallopian tube  blockage typically prevents successful passage of egg to the Sperm, or the fertilized egg to the Uterus. When fallopian tubes become damaged or blocked, they keep sperm from getting to the egg or block the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus

Damaged tubes may present in the following ways:

  • Distorted tubes – tubes which are pulled to one side or the other and may be kinked
  • Beaded tubes (appearing as beads of a necklace) as seen on xray (hysterosalpingogram)
  • Blocked tubes – may be blocked near the uterus, in the mid-portion or at the far end
  • Dilated tubes – collection of fluid or pus/blood (rare)

Causes of Blocked Fallopian Tubes

There are different types of fallopian tube blockages. Because the fallopian tubes have different parts and are a tube, there may be different parts of the tube blocked.

  •  Proximal tubal occlusion involves the isthmus This can occur after infection such as complications from abortion, missed miscarriage, cesarean section or PID. Permanent birth control procedures like Essure block the isthmus.
  • Midsegment tubal obstruction This is most often due to tubal ligation damage . Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure to permanently prevent pregnancy. Some women who have had tubal ligation change their mind later in life and choose to have this procedure reversed. This can be done surgically and has a 75% pregnancy success rate. Tubal ligation removal comes with its own risk for development of more scar tissue on top of scar tissue already present from the initial tubal ligation procedure.
  • Distal tubal occlusion This is the type of blockage that affects the part of the fallopian tube end towards the ovary. This type of blockage is typically associated with hydrosalpinx. Hydrosalpinx is often caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection, which is a sexually transmitted disease. Untreated Chlamydia is known to cause both pelvic and fallopian tube adhesions.
  • Endometriosis
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  • Uterine Fibroids
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Tubal Ligation Removal
  • Complications from lower abdominal surgery such as Cesarean section
  • Genital Tuberculosis (still common in developing countries, especially India)

There are both Surgical and Natural ways to improve the fallopian tubes’ functionality. For better suggestion and appropriate treatment, please contact Dr. Sarah Hussain, who specializes in treating such disorders and to identify potential causes and possible treatments — for infertility.

 

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Do you know PMS May Signal Future Health Problems for Women?

Pre-menstrual Syndrome means days of emotional distress and physical pain because of change in levels of hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, but new research confirms that it could also have effects on women years later.

Some of the effects includes:

  1. Women who suffer from moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) appear to be at greater risk of having high blood pressure
  2. Women suffer with p-m-s had a 40 percent increased risk of developing hypertension
  3. Women suffer with p-m-s had a 50 percent chance in suffering with heart disease
  4. Trouble sleeping and perimenopause
  5. Memory loss

How to reduce the impact of PMS?

By improving vitamin B intake, it reduces effects of PMS which includes abnormal menstrual symptom, severe lower hypertension risk and high blood pressure risk.

Vitamin B includes:

  • Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
  • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)                                             Vitamin B
  • Niacin (Vitamin B3)
  • Pantothenic Acid Vitamin B6
  • Biotin (Vitamin B7) Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12

Food Items with Vitamin b are:

  • Vegetables – Such As Peas
  • Fresh And Dried Fruit
  • Eggs
  • Wholegrain Breads
  • Some Fortified Breakfast Cereals
  • Liver
  • Milk
  • Fortified Breakfast Cereals
  • Rice
  • Chicken
  • Soya Beans
  • Peanuts
  • Beef
  • Potatoes
  • Porridge
  • Tomatoes
  • Broccoli
  • Whole Grains – Such as brown rice and wholemeal bread

Apart from your Diet, Take proper treatment for PMS by consulting expert & Specialist doctors like Sarah Hussain .

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