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Dysmenorrhea - Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Dysmenorrhea – Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

What is Dysenorrhhea?

Dysmenorrhea, also known as menstrual cramps, is a common problem that many women experience each month. The pain can be quite severe and can make it difficult to participate in activities or complete everyday tasks. While the cause of dysmenorrhea is not entirely clear, many treatments can help lessen the symptoms. If you are struggling with dysmenorrhea, please talk to your doctor for assistance. There are several treatment options available that can help improve your quality of life.


What Causes Dysmenorrhea?

Women’s menstrual cycles can be a painful and frustrating experience, but it doesn’t have to affect the way you feel about yourself. If your cycle is causing significant discomfort in both physical symptoms (such as cramps) or emotional ones such as depression then there may be an underlying cause that needs medical attention- most often endometriosis which causes secondary dysmenorrhea due to Bleeding diseases like Clotting disorders, Infections including Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID).

Secondary dysmenorrhea can also be caused by the following factors:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Abnormal pregnancy (miscarriage, ectopic)
  • Tumors, or polyps in the pelvic cavity, Infection


What are the Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea?

The most prevalent symptoms of dysmenorrhea are as follows. However, each individual may uniquely experience symptoms. Symptoms could include:

  • Lower abdominal cramping
  • Lower abdominal discomfort
  • Pain in the lower back
  • Radiating pain down the legs
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Fainting
  • Headaches

The symptoms of dysmenorrhea may resemble those of other medical diseases or issues. For a diagnosis, always consult your health care practitioner.


How is Dysmenorrhea Diagnosed?

Your health care practitioner will assess your medical history as well as perform a comprehensive physical and pelvic exam to identify dysmenorrhea. Other possible tests include:

  • Ultrasound: This test generates a picture of the inside organs using high-frequency sound waves.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Large magnets, radiofrequency, and a computer are used in this test to create detailed pictures of organs and structures within the body.
  • Laparoscopy: A laparoscope is used in this small surgery. This is a narrow tube that contains a lens and light. It is placed through an abdominal wall incision. The doctor can often find abnormal growths using the laparoscope to examine the pelvic and abdomen area.
  • Hysteroscopy: This involves a visual examination of the cervical canal and the interior of the uterus. It employs a viewing tool (hysteroscope) placed through the vagina.


If you would like to know more about Dysmenorrhea and its diagnosis, consult a professional London gynecologist, Mrs. Sarah Hussain. Contact us to book an appointment.

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Cystoscopy - Diagnosing the Bladder Issue

Cystoscopy – Diagnosing the Bladder Issue

A cystoscopy is a procedure that uses an instrument to visually view the inside lining of the urethra (the pipe via which the bladder empties urine) and the urinary bladder (often called a camera). It is normally performed by a urologist or a specialist urology nurse, but it can also be performed by a qualified gynaecologist. The most common indications for cystoscopy in diagnosis are: blood in the urine, persistent urinary incontinence, gas bubbles in the urine, crystal passing in urine, and an irritable bladder.

A cystoscopy can also be used to get access to the ureters (the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder) so that they can be inspected (ureteroscopy) or visualized using injected dye (ureterography) if there is a suspected blockage or stone.

What are the Types of Cystoscopy?

Cystoscopy can be conducted as an outpatient procedure with a thin flexible fiber-optic endoscope. Sedation is not usually required because a local anesthetic gel is applied. A rigid metallic endoscope under general or regional anesthesia, or sedation, can also be employed as a day case operation without the requirement for an overnight stay in the hospital.

How is Cystoscopy Performed?

Women are positioned flat on their backs, legs bent and heels together. All mothers who have given birth vaginally will be familiar with this position. A cystoscopy usually takes about 5 minutes to perform. An antibiotic is applied to the skin at the urethral outlet (at the end of the penis in males and just inside the vagina in women). The local anesthetic gel is then injected to the urethra with a needleless syringe that takes effect after a few minutes. Because it is only a surface gel, it is never completely successful at numbing the urethra, although it does aid and works as a lubricant. The endoscope is then gently directed down the urethra, through the prostate gland (in men), and into the bladder. Across the process, the urethral and bladder linings are methodically inspected, and any abnormalities are described and noted.


If you would like to know more about the bladder issue and its diagnosis, consult a professional London gynaecologist, Mrs. Sarah Hussain. Contact us to book an appointment.

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Things to know about Adenomyosis

Things to know about Adenomyosis

What is Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a condition that usually affects women of reproductive age. It occurs when the endometrium, the innermost layer of the uterine wall, breaks through the muscle tissue of the uterine wall. This can cause various symptoms, including heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and pressure on the bladder or rectum. In some cases, adenomyosis can also lead to infertility.

Causes for Adenomayosis?

Adenomyosis is a condition where the tissue that normally lines the uterus (endometrium) starts to grow into the muscular wall of the uterus. This can cause your menstrual periods to become longer, heavier, and more painful than usual. The exact cause of adenomyosis is unknown, but there are several theories about what might contribute to its development. Some believe that it may be due to previous uterine surgery (such as a C-section), while others think it could be related to hormonal imbalances. It’s also possible that adenomyosis is simply an overgrowth of endometrial tissue for unknown reasons. Regardless of the cause, adenomyosis can be a difficult condition to manage and treat

If you’re experiencing any of the following symptoms, you may have adenomyosis 

Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common symptom of adenomyosis. You may have AUB if you experience heavy or prolonged periods, spotting between periods, or extremely painful menstrual cramps. Other symptoms include fatigue, bloating, and pelvic pain.

Treatment for Adenomyosis

If you’re experiencing symptoms of adenomyosis, it’s important to seek treatment from a doctor. There are several different treatment options available that can effectively alleviate the symptoms of adenomyosis. Some of the most common treatments include medication, surgery, and self-care measures. Treatment for adenomyosis will vary depending on the individual, so be sure to discuss your options with a healthcare professional.


Make an appointment with your gynecologist right away if you notice any of the following symptoms that are similar to those described above. Dr. Sarah Hussain is a London Gynaecologist with years of experience who can help you with any gynecological issues. To schedule an appointment, please contact us.

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What is vaginal atrophy

What is vaginal atrophy?

What is vaginal atrophy?

Vaginal atrophy, also known as atrophic vaginitis, is a condition that can occur when there is a decrease in the levels of the hormone estrogen. Estrogen is important for keeping the vaginal tissue healthy, lubricated, and elastic. When estrogen levels decline, vaginal atrophy can develop, causing the vaginal tissue to become thin, dry, and inflamed.

Causes for vaginal atrophy?

Vaginal atrophy is a medical condition that can affect women of all ages in our terms It occurs when the tissues of the vagina become thin and dry and can lead to itching, burning, painful intercourse, and urinary problems. Wghile it is not a life-threatening condition, it can be very uncomfortable and significantly impact a woman’s quality of life. Vaginal atrophy is most commonly seen in postmenopausal women due to low levels of estroen.

Symptoms of vaginal atrophy can include dryness, burning, itching, and painful intercourse.


As we age, our bodies go through many changes. For women, one of the most significant changes is menopause. Menopause can cause a variety of symptoms, including vaginal atrophy. Although it is a common problem, there are treatments available to help alleviate the symptoms of vaginal atrophy

Here are some of the most common treatments for vaginal atrophy: hormone therapy, lubricants, and low-dose vaginal estrogen creams or rings. Talk to your doctor about which treatment option is right for you.

If you would like to know more about the Vaginal atrophy, consult our professional London gynaecologist Dr. Sarah Hussain. Contact us to book an appointment.

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Ways to fight uterine prolapse before menopause

Defend Uterine Prolapse Before Menopause

What is Uterine Prolapse?

Uterine prolapse occurs when the uterus drops down from its normal position into the vaginal canal. This condition affects nearly one-third of women, making it one of the most common reproductive health problems. While there are many potential causes of uterine prolapse, it is often associated with childbirth and aging. 


Symptoms can include pelvic pressure, pain, urinary incontinence, and more. If you are experiencing any symptoms of uterine prolapse, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition but may include surgery or pelvic floor exercises. Left untreated, uterine prolapse can lead to long-term health complications.

Risk Factors:

Relatively few women are aware of the risk factors associated with uterine prolapse, a condition that occurs when the uterus slips down into the vagina. This can lead to uncomfortable and even embarrassing symptoms. In some cases, uterine prolapse may require surgery for correction. By understanding the risk factors associated with this condition, you can take steps to reduce your risk of developing it. Some of the most common risk factors include obesity, excessive lifting, and smoking. Additionally, women who have had multiple pregnancies or who have undergone menopause may be more likely to experience uterine prolapse.

Ways to Fight Uterine Prolapse Before Menopause

  • If you are dealing with uterine prolapse, it is important to stay at a healthy weight. Excess weight can worsen the condition and make it more difficult to treat. There are many things you can do to maintain a healthy weight, including eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise. 
  • Another is to use pelvic floor exercises to help keep the muscles strong. If these methods don’t work, surgery may be necessary. 
  • While heavy weightlifting may be great for developing strong and toned muscles, it can actually worsen uterine prolapse. In fact, any type of strenuous exercise can place unnecessary pressure on the pelvic floor muscles and ligaments, leading to prolapse. 


If you find any of the above symptoms that resemble those listed above, make an appointment with your gynaecologist right away. Dr. Sarah Hussain is a professional London Gynaecologist with years of expertise who can assist you with any gynaecological difficulties. Contact us to book an appointment.

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